The Carignan-Salières was formed from two existing regiments: the Balthasar Regiment, formed during the Thirty Years' War and becoming the Salières when Balthasar died in 1665, and the Carignan Regiment, formed in 1644 in Piedmont. Following the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659, both regiments avoided disbandment by merging to form the Carignan-Salières Regiment.
In 1664, following the request of the Sovereign Council, the French finance minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert ordered the Carignan-Salières to reinforce the existing 100 man force in New France.
The arrival of the Carignan-Salières Regiment, accompanied by De Tracy’s companies, marks an important moment in Canadian history. In 1665, 1300 soldiers landed in the small colony of barely 3000 inhabitants to establish peace with the Iroquois who were terrorizing the colonists. But this was not their sole aim: Louis XIV hoped the soldiers would settle in New France. Indeed, some 400 elected to stay, thereby saving the colony and becoming the forefathers of thousands of Quebecers and other North Americans.
This regiment was used between 1665 and 1668 to combat the Iroquois threat to the struggling colony of New France.